主题：Cross-Spousal Education on Older Adult Health and the Buffering Role of Cognitive and Structural Social Capital
This research provides causal evidence on the negative effect of low spousal education on cognition and mental health using nationwide pooled data on Indonesians aged 45 to 80 years. While there was no significant gender disparity in the spousal education-cognition relationship, female relative to male mental health on the other hand was more adversely affected by spousal low education. With self-rated health, only husbands with junior school or less had a negative effect on their wives’ health. This study highlights the important role of social capital in countering spousal educational disadvantage on health and demonstrates that social capital fully modifies this relationship differently based on gender. For example, cognitive social capital buffers female cognition, mental and self-rated health while structural social capital buffers male cognition and mental health. Structural social capital has a limited moderating effect on female health, pertaining only to cognition, and even so, is less negating compared to the effect on male cognition. Gender-specific policies around social capital may aid adverse health outcomes associated with low education in marital dyads.